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Mastering Angular Services: Essential Concepts for Beginners

Mastering Angular Services: Essential Concepts for Beginners

Ayush Agarwal's photo
Ayush Agarwal
·May 13, 2023·

7 min read

Table of contents

  • Prerequisites
  • What are services in Angular?
  • Creating a basic service
  • Injecting a service into a Component
  • Using the HttpClient service for API requests
  • Conclusion

Angular services play a crucial role in developing robust and modular web applications. As a developer, understanding the basics of services in Angular is essential for building maintainable and scalable code. In this blog, we will cover the fundamental concepts of services in Angular, including how to create and use services, share data between components, and make API requests using built-in services.

Whether you're just getting started with Angular or looking to improve your existing skills, this guide will provide a solid foundation for working with services in your Angular applications.

Prerequisites

Before diving into this guide on Angular services, it is recommended that readers have a basic understanding of Angular concepts, including components, modules, and dependency injection. Familiarity with TypeScript and web development fundamentals such as HTML, CSS, and JavaScript is also helpful.

This guide is intended for beginners who are just getting started with Angular services, but a foundation in these topics will aid in understanding the material covered.

Let's get started and learn something interesting today!

What are services in Angular?

In Angular, a service is a class that is used to encapsulate shared data and functionality that can be used across multiple components. Services act as a central place to store data and business logic, making it easy to share data and functionality between components without having to repeat code or pass data through many levels of the component hierarchy.

Services are typically used to implement data access methods, handle API requests, or perform any other business logic that needs to be shared across components. Services are usually created using the @Injectable decorator, which marks the class as a service that can be injected into other components.

Here's an example of a simple service that has a single property and method:

import { Injectable } from '@angular/core';

@Injectable({
  providedIn: 'root'
})
export class TestService {
  private data: string[] = ['apple', 'banana', 'cherry'];

  getData(): string[] {
    return this.data;
  }
}

In this example, the TestService class is marked as a service using the @Injectable decorator. The providedIn property is set to 'root', which means that the service is available globally throughout the application.

The TestService class has a private property called data, which is an array of strings. The class also has a public method called getData, which returns the data property.

Using this service, we can easily share the data property and getData method between multiple components in our application.

Creating a basic service

Creating a basic service in Angular is a straightforward process. The first step is to create a new class that will act as the service. Once the class has been created, we can use the @Injectable decorator to indicate that the class is a service that can be injected into other components. Finally, we need to provide the service to our application using the providers array.

Here's an example of creating a simple service that generates random numbers:

import { Injectable } from '@angular/core';

@Injectable({
  providedIn: 'root'
})
export class NumberService {
  getRandomNumber(): number {
    return Math.floor(Math.random() * 100);
  }
}

In this example, we have created a new class called NumberService. We have also added the @Injectable decorator to indicate that this class is a service.

The NumberService class has a single method called getRandomNumber that returns a random number between 0 and 100.

Bonus: It is a good practice to have the word service in the name of the file. For example above service can be names as `number-service.service.ts

Now that we have created our service, we need to provide it to our application using the providers array. We can do this in the @NgModule decorator of our AppModule:

import { NgModule } from '@angular/core';
import { BrowserModule } from '@angular/platform-browser';

import { AppComponent } from './app.component';
import { NumberService } from './number.service';

@NgModule({
  declarations: [
    AppComponent
  ],
  imports: [
    BrowserModule
  ],
  providers: [NumberService],
  bootstrap: [AppComponent]
})
export class AppModule { }

In this example, we have imported our NumberService class and added it to the providers array in our @NgModule decorator. Now, the NumberService can be injected into any component that needs it.

Injecting a service into a Component

Now that we have created a service, we need to be able to use it in our Angular components. This is done by injecting the service into the component's constructor.

Here's an example of how to inject a service into a component:

import { Component } from '@angular/core';
import { NumberService } from './number.service';

@Component({
  selector: 'app-random-number',
  template: `
    <p>Random Number: {{ randomNumber }}</p>
  `
})
export class RandomNumberComponent {
  randomNumber: number;

  constructor(private numberService: NumberService) {
    this.randomNumber = this.numberService.getRandomNumber();
  }
}

In this example, we have created a new component called RandomNumberComponent. We have also imported our NumberService and added it to the constructor of our component.

The NumberService is now available in our component as numberService. We can call any method on the service from within our component, just like we would with any other object.

In the constructor of our component, we are using the numberService to generate a random number. We then store that number in the randomNumber property of our component.

Now, whenever our RandomNumberComponent is created, it will generate a new random number using the NumberService. This number can then be displayed in the component's template.

Injecting services into components is a powerful feature of Angular, as it allows us to share data and functionality between components without having to repeat code.

The NumberService can also be used in any other component similarly thus preventing any repeated code where the methods of numberService is required.

Using the HttpClient service for API requests

The HttpClient service is a powerful tool in Angular for making API requests and retrieving data from external sources. In this section, we'll explore how to use the HttpClient service to make HTTP requests and handle the response.

First, we need to import the HttpClientModule in our app.module.ts file to make it available throughout our application:

import { HttpClientModule } from '@angular/common/http';

@NgModule({
  imports: [
    HttpClientModule
  ],
  ...
})

Next, create service that will use the HttpClient to make an API request. For example, let's say we want to retrieve a list of users from the JSONPlaceholder API:

import { Injectable } from '@angular/core';
import { HttpClient } from '@angular/common/http';

@Injectable({
  providedIn: 'root'
})
export class UserService {
  private apiUrl = 'https://jsonplaceholder.typicode.com/users';

  constructor(private http: HttpClient) {}

  getUsers() {
    return this.http.get(this.apiUrl);
  }
}

In this example, we create a new service called UserService and define a private property called apiUrl that holds the URL of the API endpoint we want to access. Inject the HttpClient service into the constructor of our service, and define a method called getUsers() that makes an HTTP GET request to the API using the http.get() method.

Now, use the UserService to retrieve the list of users in a component:

import { Component } from '@angular/core';
import { UserService } from './user.service';

@Component({
  selector: 'app-user-list',
  template: `
    <ul>
      <li *ngFor="let user of users">{{ user.name }}</li>
    </ul>
  `
})
export class UserListComponent {
  users: any[];

  constructor(private userService: UserService) {}

  ngOnInit() {
    this.userService.getUsers().subscribe((data: any[]) => {
      this.users = data;
    });
  }
}

In this example, we inject the UserService into our UserListComponent and use the getUsers() method to retrieve the list of users from the API. We use the subscribe() method to handle the response from the API and store the list of users in a property called users. We can then use *ngFor to iterate over the users array and display each user's name in our template.

By using the HttpClient service, we can easily make API requests and retrieve data from external sources in our Angular applications. This can make it easier to build dynamic, data-driven applications that can access and display information from a variety of sources.

Conclusion

In conclusion, services are a crucial part of building robust and efficient Angular applications. By understanding the basics of services in Angular and how to create and use them, we can build more scalable and maintainable applications.

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